A lottery is a gambling game or method of raising money in which a large number of tickets are sold and a drawing is held for prizes. The term is also used for any scheme for the distribution of prizes based on chance. For example, the National Basketball Association holds a lottery each year in which the names of all 14 teams that did not make the playoffs are drawn to determine who gets first pick in the draft. In the United States, lotteries are often regulated by state governments. In many cases, the proceeds from the games are used for public purposes such as education and welfare.
A major requirement of lotteries is a system for collecting and pooling all stakes placed by ticket holders. This is normally accomplished by a hierarchy of sales agents who pass the money paid for tickets up through the organization until it is “banked.” From this pool, a percentage is usually deducted for costs of running and promoting the lottery, while the remainder goes to the winners. Whether the lottery has few large prizes or many smaller ones, there must always be a balance between high ticket prices and attractive odds of winning.
In addition to the monetary prize, the ticket holder may receive some entertainment value or other non-monetary benefits from playing. This utility is a significant factor in the decision to purchase a ticket, and it is one reason why lotteries are so popular. However, if the expected disutility of a monetary loss is greater than the combined utility of the non-monetary benefits, then the purchase of a lottery ticket is not rational for that individual.
The history of state lotteries is a classic case of public policy made piecemeal and incrementally, with little or no overall oversight. The establishment of a lottery often begins with the state legislating a monopoly for itself; establishing a public corporation to run the lottery; beginning operations with a modest number of relatively simple games; and, due to ongoing pressures for additional revenues, progressively expanding the scope and complexity of the lottery.
Moreover, studies have shown that the popularity of lotteries is not directly related to the objective fiscal conditions of the state government. The public has been willing to support lotteries even in times of pronounced economic stress, presumably because the lottery funds can be seen as benefiting a particular public good such as education.